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Pineapple
Ananas comosus (L) 2n=50

Introduction
Family : Bromeliaceae
Include 60 genera and 1500 spp

Origin :- South America
  1. Semi perennial herb, 90 - 100 cm in height with a leaf spread of 130 - 150 cm and a terminal inflorescence of fruit
  2. Confined to Tropics & Sub tropics (250 between N & S from equator)
  3. Growth continued after fruiting by one or more auxiliary buds in the leaf axil growing in to vegetative branches (suckers) asa ratoon crops.
  4. Plants may continue living and fruiting for over fifty years.
  5. In commercial production, several ratoon crops are taken (2-6 harvesting)‍
  6. Although its' a seasonal crop, there is a chance to obtain fruits through out the year by application of flower induction hormones.

Nature of the pineapple
  • Produce Functional germ cells
  • But cant be self fertilized.
  • Cross compatible & set seeds
  • No natural cross pollination (except by Humming birds)
  • About 150 flowers /fruits
  • Opening start from base (5-10 Flowers / days)
  • Continues up to 10-15 days

Nutritive Values
(per 100g of edible fruit)
Water 87.8 g
Energy
46.0 k cal
Protein 0.4 g
Fat   
0.1 g
Carbohydrates 10.8 g
Calcium 20.0 mg
Phosphorus 9.0 g
Iron 1.2 mg
Carotene (Vit. A) 18.0 ug
Thiamine 200.0 ug
Riboflavin (Vit. B) 120.0 ug
Niacin 0.1 ug
Vitamin C 39.0 mg

Commercial usage of pineapple
Ripen fruits :-
  • use as a dessert
  • Syrup (juice)
  • Alcohol
  • Citric Acid
  • Residues - Cattle feed and fertilizer
  • Leaves Fibers-

Medicinal Values
Ripe fruit : Possesses germicidal, laxative, and invigorative properties, contains digestive enzyme increases appetite.
Useful in cardiovascular disorders.
Unripe fruit : Can cause abortion

Nature of cultivation
Medium and large scale orchards and home gardens.

Availability
May - June (Major season) Prices are low
December - January (Minor season)

Obtain fruits through out the year by Hormone application - Prices are high

Pineapple cultivation extent and production in Sri Lanka
District             
Extent (ha)
Production ('000 fruits)
1. Gampaha 1,694
8,969
2. Kurunegala
2,069
25,170
3. Badulla 115 1,201
4. Puttlam 
199 1,329
5. Moneragala
157 1,140
SriLanka (Total) 4,825 
40,716
Source:- Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka.

Major Growing Areas
Kurunagala , Gampaha , Badhulla , Puttlam , Moneragala , Colombo and Gale.

Suitable climatic zones for pineapple cultivation in Sri Lanka

Wet Zone 
WL1
WL2
WL3
RF >100" >75" 
>60"
Soil Red yellow podsolic
Red yellow podsolic
Red yellow podsolic
Hiniduma, Ratnapura,Morawaka,
Agalawatta, Bombuwela
Kegalla, Pelmadulla
Warakapola Polgahawela
Mapalana Nakiadeniya
Walpita, Mirigama,Veyanoda, Mahara

Recommended Varieties

1. Cayenne = Smooth cayenne = "Kew" Pineapple in SriLanka
2. Queen = "Mauritius" in SriLanka
3. Singapore Spanish

Commercial varieties in SriLanka

Characters Kew Mauritius
1.Presence of spins in leaves No Yes
2.Quality of flesh Very Good Excellent
3. Canning quality
Very Good
Fair
4. Fruit Yield High Average
5. Fruit weight (kg)
2.5 - 4 1.2 - 2
6. Shape of the fruit Cylindrical Conical
7. Color of the ripen fruit
Yellow with green mottling
Golden yellow
8. Flavor and aroma Pleasant
Excellent
9. Wilt resistance Susceptible Moderately susceptible
10. Drought resistance Moderately resistant Resistant
11. Farmer preference Medium
High
12. Cultivated extent Very low (5%) Very high (95%)

Diseases of Pineapple

1. Pineapple wilt
2. Yellow spots
3. Heart/root rot
4. Butt rot
5. Phythium rot
6. Acetic souring
7. Glassy spoilage
8. Yeast fermentation

Pineapple wilt
Symptoms
  • Slow growth on roots
  • Inhibit the root actions
  • Deteriorating of root tissue
  • Red colour leaf tips
Control
  • Select the suitable land
  • Controlling ants and mealy bugs
  • Using healthy plants, pretreatment of suckers before planting
  • Control the plant density (Desukering after harvesting)
  • Weeds control
  • Shade control
  • Control the excess fertilizer application
Pests of Pineapple
1. Mealy bug
2. Fruit borer
3. Stem borer
4. Nematodes
5. Rats
6. Termites
7. Pineapple bug/beatle
8. Symphylids
9. Pineapple mites
10. Scale insects

Control of pineapple pest and diseases
Name
Chemical Time of application Concentration
1.Mealy bug Selecron / Tokuthion Preplanting and 5,8 and 14 months after planting
30 ml liquefy in 10 l of water
2. Head /root rot
Ridomil / Mancozeb Preplanting ,dip the suckers 5 minutes in the mixture Ridomil 200 ml+ 100 l of water
Mancozeb 10 g + 100 l of water
3. Pythium rot 1.Mancozeb
2.Topzin
If disease present only 5.0g liquefy in 10 l of water

Climatic Requirements
Elevation
Up to 1000 m from the sea level ( higher elevations fruit contains high acidity)

Optimum temperature
24- 270 C

Mean Annual Rain fall
1000 mm (635 - 2500 mm)

Low country wet & intermediate zones more suitable (with supplementary irrigation Dry zone also suitable)

Well drained , deep and gravel soils are much better.

Poor drainage soils are not good

Optimum soil PH = 5.5-6.5

Salinity and alkalinity soils are not good except little acidity and heavy clay

Should be exposed to sunlight in the open field or intercrop with young or old coconut

Ca and Mn rich soils are not good. (Cholorosis may appear)

Planting Material

Type of suckers Duration from planting to harvesting (months)
1. Ground suckers 12 -14
2. Stem suckers
14 - 16
3. Slips 20 - 22
4. Crown 24
5. Tissue culture plants
15 - 18
6. Seedling 30

Planting material production ratio
Types of planting material Ratio
1. Crown splitting 1:20
2. Stem sections 1:30
3. Normal suckers per plant 1: 2 - 3
4. Seedlings per fruit (by artificial cross pollination)   
1:150
5. Suckers from decapitation per plant 1:20
6. Tissue culture plantlets per shoot 1:6000

Plants requirement (ha)

Planting System Mono crops Intercrop with coconut
1. Single row method (spacing 2 x 0.3 m) 
14,000
10,000
2. Double row method (1.5 x 0.3 m)
(Two double 0.6 m)  
27,000   
16,000

Pretreatment of suckers
1. Insecticides
Mix selecron/tokuthion 300 ml in 100 l of water , dip the suckers 5 minutes in this solution.
2. Fungicides
Mix ridomil 200 ml in 100 l of water, dip the suckers 5 minutes in this solution.

Hormone Application

Apply to getuniform fruit setting & off season fruit production

Time & Method of application

Five months before the harvesting. Should contain 30 - 35 leaves and the age at 8 - 10 months

Hormone Trade Name Applying Quantity Application Rate/tree
1.CaC2 Calcium Carbite 30g + 1Lit. of water
50 ml
2. NAA Plantifix 4.5 Lit. of water 50 ml
3. Ethylene Ethral 1ml + 5Lit. of water 50 ml

Pineapple hybridization
Steps:- 1. Cross pollination

  • Followers opening at 9-10 AM
  • Not necessary to emasculate,Not necessary to isolate the plants or flowers
  • Anthers collected to small box by forceps at around 10 AM
  • Single anther rubbed over the stigma with forceps
  • Pollinated flowers are net covered
  • Crossed fruits should be labeled
  • Ripen fruits are separately harvest for seed extraction
Steps:- 2. Collection & germination of seeds
  • Cut the ripen fruits & get the hybrid seeds
  • Clean the seeds with water
  • Seeds germination (4-6 weeks) - Seeds will be placed on bricks
  • Keep on a water bath
  • Half of the bricks should be get wet
  • It has to be covered with polyethylene orpiece of flat glass
Steps:- 3. Nursery Management of Seedlings
  • 30-45 days old seedlings will be planted in the seedling trays & kept for 6 months
  • Seedlings will be replanted in the field nursery & kept for 6 months
  • Total period for nursery is about 1 year
Steps:-4. Evaluation of hybrid lines in the field
  • Lines should be evaluated by using fruit to row planting system
  • Spacing 1x2 m (All the seedlings of one fruit should plant in one row)
  • Plants should be selected forGene-typically differences,Characters for high yields & qualities
  • Selected plants should be propagated by vegetative suckers
  • Progeny screening & data collection should be continued up to third generation
Steps:-5. Adaptability testing
Different locations (NCVT trials)

  • Single row system should be adapted (spacing 0.30 x 1.00 m)
  • Compare with recommended varieties
  • Growth, yields & quality characters
  • Data should be collected from the ratoon crops

Harvesting & post-harvest technology
Value Added Products

Cordials, canned products , jams, alcohol (wine), syrup, dehydrated products for confectionery, ice cream.

Economics & Marketing
Problems and Constraints in pineapple cultivation

1. Climate change - Drought and high rain fall
2. Less land availability
3. High investment
4. Lack of good varieties
5. Lack of planting material
6. Weed
7. High cost of inputs
8. Lack of laborers
9. Pest and diseases (esp. pineapple wilt)
10. Price fluctuations
11. Lack of technical knowledge

Harvesting & post-harvest technology
Value Added Products
Cordials, canned products, jams, alcohol (wine), syrup, dehydrated products for confectionery, ice cream.

Cost of cultivation
Under coconut, single row system, up to first harvest
Item (Rs. /ha)
1. Land Preparation 14,000
2. Planting Material (10000 plants) 60,000
3. Pre treatment 4,500
4. Planting (25 man days) 10,000
5. Fertilizer (50 kg x 24 bags) 48,000
6. Weeding
6,000
7. Hormone
4,000
8. Pest & disease control 10,000
9. Harvesting
6,000
10. Others
12,500
Total 175,000


 

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